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Food and Drink Quiz Questions

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  1. A flatbread called injera that is traditionally eaten in Ethiopia is made from the flour of what grain that is now being called as the new quinoa?

    Teff

    About a fifth of Ethiopia’s harvested land is dedicated to harvesting teff, and the government wants to double production of the grain by 2015. Between 2001 and 2007, teff accounted for over 11% of Ethiopian calorie intake.
    (Acknowledgement)

  2. What is the last name of the British P.M. of the 1800s who received a gift of tea flavored with bergamot oil and the variety of which is now named after him?

    (Lord) Grey

    Earl Grey tea is a tea blend with a distinctive citrus flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange.
    (Acknowledgement)

  3. Compiled in the late 4th or early 5th century AD and sure to delight gourmets, what is Apicius?

    Collection of Roman cookery recipes

    The name comes from Marcus Gavius Apicius, a Roman gourmet and lover of refined luxury who lived sometime in the 1st century AD, during the reign of Tiberius. He is sometimes erroneously asserted to be the author of the book.
    (Acknowledgement)

  4. Ararat Agakhanyan who owned a chain of stores in California saw an upsurge of sales due to a March 2, 2014 event connected to filmdom. What did Ararat's chain specialize in?

    Pizza (Ellen DeGeneres' Oscar party)

    He was the franchiser of Big Mama's & Papa's Pizza.
    (Acknowledgement)

  5. The consumption of Touareg tea which is tea flavored with which herb is widely prevalent in several Arab countries?

    Mint

  6. Sir Walter Raleigh amused Elizabeth's court by telling them that the raccoon variety of what edibles grew on trees?

    Oysters

    Sir Walter Raleigh, as part of an expedition to Guyana, famously encountered the mangrove oyster during his stopover in Trinidad. Raleigh's widely-read account of the expedition, which had intended to find El Dorado, the mythical city of gold, included many exaggerated claims about the region. Due to this context, Raleigh's relatively accurate description of oysters growing on tree branches has been met with incredulity.
    (Acknowledgement)

  7. Talking against the new Healthcare Bill, Judge Antonin Scalia said in 2012 that it is akin to forcing people to buy what food item? (hint: George H. W. Bush wouldn't approve)

    Broccoli

    The hint about H. W. is related to a speech he gave in which he said he wouldn't eat broccoli.
    (Acknowledgement)

  8. A 2002 book subtitled The Much Lamented Death of Madam Geneva is a detailed account of the craze for what libation that overtook 18th century England?

    Gin

    'Madam Geneva' is a misspelling of the original drink that was called jenever.
    (Acknowledgement)

  9. What concept of the food industry involves cooking sealed food at lower temperatures but for a long time?

    Sous-vide

    The intention is to cook the item evenly, and not to overcook the outside.
    (Acknowledgement)

  10. Englishman Albert Howard who had publications like Manufacture of Humus by the Indore Process among others is considered a pioneer of what?

    Organic agriculture

  11. Just like Americans like to call a full-course meal 'from soup to nuts', citizens of the Roman empire used the expression 'from the egg to the ___' what?

    Apple

    The Latin phrase is ab ovo usque ad mala.
    (Acknowledgement)

  12. A favorite measure of dieters in the present times, what index indicates how quickly blood sugar levels rise after eating a particular type of food?

    Glycemic index

    Glucose has a glycemic index of 100.

  13. The Roundtable is the buffet restaurant at what Las Vegas casino?

    Excalibur

    You do the math!

  14. In a native American legend, corn, beans and what other crop make up the triage called the three sisters owing to the practice of growing them together?

    Squash

    This tradition of interplanting corn, beans and squash in the same mounds, widespread among Native American farming societies, is a sophisticated, sustainable system that provided long-term soil fertility and a healthy diet to generations.
    (Acknowledgement)

  15. What cocktail made with lemon juice, cointreau, gin and a dash of certain color is also the name of a luxury transport of South Africa?

    Blue Train

  16. Water-bath and pressure are two types of techniques for food preservation in what process?

    Canning

    In both cases, jars of food are heated and processed in such a way to kill organisms in the raw food and to create a vacuum seal in the lid.
    (Acknowledgement)

  17. What fast-food ubiquity that chef Bourdain once called "the most disgusting thing he ever ate" comes in bone, ball, bell, and boot shapes?

    McDonald's Chicken McNugget

  18. The Cypriot dish ambelopoulia that is the subject of much controversy in the country is made from what?

    Songbirds

    The dish uses bite size pickled or grilled songbirds as the main ingredient. It has been illegal to trap, sell or purchase birds and to serve ambelopoulia for over 30 years, but the law protecting the birds is rarely enforced.

  19. In 2011, the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion upended the Naga Bhut Jolokia for what culinary distinction?

    World's hottest chili pepper

    The New Mexico State University's Chile Pepper Institute has identified the Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Blend as the newest hottest chili pepper as of February 2012. According to the Institute, the Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Blend ranks as high as 2,009,231 SHU on the Scoville scale, making it the hottest chili pepper in the world to date.

  20. What is the only South American region in the list of 9 names selected by a project called 'Great Wine Capitals'?

    Mendoza in Argentina

    The region around Greater Mendoza is the largest wine producing area in Latin America.
    (Acknowledgement)

  21. The 18th century English nobleman John Montagu who was so fond of gambling that he played even while eating was the earl of what town in Kent?

    Sandwich

    The modern sandwich is named after Lord Sandwich, but the exact circumstances of its invention and original use are still the subject of debate.

  22. Which working-class dish gets its name from the fact that sausages containing excess water explode when cooked in high-heat?

    Bangers and mash

    Although it is sometimes stated that the term 'bangers' has its origins in World War II, the term was actually in use at least as far back as 1919.

  23. The 'culinary triangle' concept proposed by anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss discusses what three basic types of cooking of meat?

    Boiling, roasting and smoking

    The boiling of meat is looked at as a cultural way of cooking because it uses a receptacle to hold water, therefore it is not completely natural. Roasting and smoking are described as more natural.

  24. The sizes of these are indicated as 121-140 per kg: Colossal, 181-200: Jumbo, and 351-380: Bullets and so on. This came about as the ad agency promoting them in the 20's adopted the slogans used to hype movies in those days. What are these culinary items?

  25. In Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club, a pair of Chinese women are employed at an American factory making these. The ladies are amused by the unfamiliar concept (as it is unknown in their native land) and after making attempts at translation, they conclude that these contain not wisdom but bad instruction. What are we talking about?

    Fortune cookies

    They are often served as a dessert in Chinese restaurants in the United States and some other countries, but are absent in China. A 'fortune' is a piece of paper with words of wisdom or a vague prophecy.

  26. If 'single malt' describes a whisky made at one distillery, what is the word for a wine that is made from a single grape type?

    Varietal

    Examples of grape varieties commonly used in varietal wines are Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot.

  27. The name of what distinctive Nordic dish translates as 'buried salmon'?

    Gravlax

    Usually served as an appetizer, it consists of raw salmon, cured in salt, sugar and dill. The name comes from the Scandinavian word grav, which literally means 'grave' (in Swedish, Norwegian, Danish), and lax which means 'salmon.'

  28. Dr. Arthur Agatston, a native of Germany who came up with the South Beach Diet advocated no-alcohol in his program with the exception of small amounts during what period of celebration?

    Oktoberfest!

  29. The name of what meal might have originated from the belief that it was the kind eaten on mainland Europe as opposed to the kind eaten in Britain?

    Continental breakfast

    (Acknowledgement)

  30. Pule cheese, said to be the world's most expensive was in the news in Dec 2012 when Novak Djokovic bought the world's supply for his restaurant chain. It is made from the milk of what animal?

  31. What fried street food popular with vegetarians is claimed by the Copts of Egypt as their invention to be a replacement for meat during Lent?

    Falafel

    Generally accepted to have first been made in Egypt, falafel has become a dish eaten throughout the Middle East. It is a deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both.

  32. What meat dish got its name when a chef got an order for raw meat and remembered a Venetian painter whose work was dominated by reds and yellows?

    Carpaccio

    It was invented at Harry's Bar in Venice, where it was first served to the countess Amalia Nani Mocenigo in 1950 when she informed the bar's owner that her vegetarian doctor had recommended she eat only raw meat. It consisted of thin slices of raw beef dressed with a mustard sauce made of French Dijon mustard. The dish was named Carpaccio by the owner of the bar, Giuseppe Cipriani, in reference to the Venetian painter Vittore Carpaccio, because the colors of the dish reminded him of paintings by Carpaccio.
    (Acknowledgement)

  33. The name of what renowned institution comes from what a group of French knights, known for their lavish feasts, hung their awarded crosses from?

    Le Cordon Bleu ('The Blue Ribbon')

    The origin of the school comes from L'Ordre des Chevaliers du Saint Esprit, an elite group of French knights that was created in 1578. Each member was awarded the Cross of the Holy Spirit, which hung from a blue ribbon. According to one story, the group became known for its extravagant and luxurious banquets, known as 'cordons bleus.' While these dinners ended at the time of the French Revolution, the name remained synonymous with excellent cooking. Another theory has it that the blue ribbon simply became synonymous with excellence, and this was later applied to other fields such as cooking.
    (Acknowledgement)

  34. Edmond Albius, a 19th century slave working on the island of Réunion is known for inventing the pollination technique for the cultivation of what flavoring delight?

    Vanilla

    At the age of 12, he invented a technique for pollinating vanilla orchids quickly and profitably. Albius's technique revolutionized the cultivation of vanilla and made it possible to profitably grow vanilla beans away from their native Mexico. Albius's manual pollination method is still used today, as nearly all vanilla is pollinated by hand.

  35. Which pioneer of the American food industry created the 'Dairyman's Ten Commandments' that specified farmers must wash cow udders before milking and had to keep their barns clean?

    Gail Borden, one of the inventors of condensed milk

    Nicolas Appert condensed milk in France in 1820, and Gail Borden, Jr. in the United States in 1853, in reaction to difficulties in storing milk for more than a few hours.

  36. Yamadanishiki, Gohyakumangoku, Miyamanishiki and Omachi are the popular varieties of rice used for making what?

    Sake

    It is produced by the fermentation of rice. The rice is first polished to remove the protein and oils from the exterior of the rice grains, leaving behind starch. Since sake made from rice containing only starch has a superior taste, the rice is polished to remove the bran.

  37. In a 2010 issue of New Scientist magazine, what habit of a famous character was explained as follows?

    When the books featuring the character were written, most vodka was produced from potatoes and potato vodka had an oily aftertaste. But if it is mixed with ice in a particular way, it tastes less oily.

    James Bond ordering a martini shaken, not stirred

  38. What food staple is the focus of a 1980 documentary ___ Is as Good as Ten Mothers that was filmed primarily in Gilroy, California?

    Garlic

    Gilroy is well known for its garlic crop and for the annual Gilroy Garlic Festival.

  39. What concept of the restaurant industry was created when Bob Bernstein reasoned that if kids could get their own packaged meal instead of sharing their parent's food, everybody would be pleased?

    McDonald's Happy Meal

    It was introduced in 1977.

  40. If you savor Dragon Well, Spring Snail, Iron Goddess and Fur Peak, what are you a connoisseur of?

    Teas, or more specifically Chinese Famous Teas

    China's Famous Teas is a list of ten notable Chinese teas. Contrary to popular belief, there is no steadfast list. The list varies considerably depending on the area where it is compiled and the current trend of tea consumption.
    (Acknowledgement)

  41. What popular condiment in which egg yolk is the chief emulsifier originates from it being called as the 'sauce of Mahon'?

    Mayonnaise

    It is made by slowly adding oil to an egg yolk, while whisking vigorously to disperse the oil. The oil and the water in yolks form a base of the emulsion, while lecithin and protein from the yolks are the emulsifiers that stabilizes it.

  42. According to National Geographic, in the list of top ten coffee consuming nations by absolute numbers, unsurprisingly what is the only name from Africa?

    Ethiopia

    Wild coffee's energizing effect was likely first discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia.

  43. Ideally they should contain at least 14 percent water so that under heat, the water would expand to steam. If the internal moisture falls below 12 percent, they open only partially or not at all and such ones were once cursed as 'old maids.' What are these without which snacking won't be the same?

    Corn kernels (popcorn)

  44. What type of meal is an Iftar during which no sunlight is present?

    Evening meal when Muslims break their fast during Ramadan

    It is done right after Maghrib (sunset) time.

  45. What salad made from mozzarella cheese, tomatoes and basil is also the name of the town in Tuscany where Michelangelo was born?

    Caprese

  46. What beverage, hitherto well-known only from a children's book series, was created by Jayson & Co. in 2010 for a newly opened theme park and despite the name, contains no alcohol or dairy?

    Butterbeer from the Harry Potter universe

    The earliest reference to the drink is from The Good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchin, published in London in 1588 AD, and made from beer, sugar, eggs, nutmeg, cloves and butter back in Tudor times. The modern version was created anew for The Wizarding World of Harry Potter in Orlando, Florida and J. K. Rowling insisted that it contain real sugar, not corn sugar.
    (Acknowledgement)

  47. What alcoholic cocktail that is made by mixing stout and lager is also the name of a notorious British paramilitary group known for suppressing the Irish Revolution of the 1920s?

    Black and Tans

    The unit's nickname arose from the colour of the improvised khaki uniforms initially worn by its members. Although established to target the IRA, the Black and Tans became known for numerous attacks on the Irish civilian population. Contrary to popular belief, the Black and Tan is not a drink commonly consumed in Ireland. The style is believed to have originated in pubs in Britain with drinkers ordering a mix of dark stout and draught bitter.

  48. Claret is the name used in England for red wine from what region of France that is also the capital of Aquitaine?

    Bordeaux

    The name derives from the French clairet, a now uncommon dark rosé and the most common wine exported from Bordeaux until the 18th century.

  49. During WWI when patriotic Americans participated in voluntary food rationing, if Mondays were Meatless, what were Wednesdays?

    Wheat-less

    During World War I, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urged families to reduce consumption of key staples to help the war effort. Conserving food would support U.S. troops as well as feed populations in Europe where food production and distribution had been disrupted by war. To encourage voluntary rationing, the FDA created the slogan "Food Will Win the War" and coined the terms "Meatless monday" and "Wheatless Wednesday" to remind Americans to reduce intake of these products.

  50. The four main types of what luxury delicacy are Beluga, Sterlet, Ossetra, and Sevruga?

    Caviar

    Traditionally the designation caviar is only used for sturgeon roe from the wild sturgeon species living in the Caspian and Black Sea.

  51. What is the second-largest day for U.S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day?

    Super Bowl Sunday

  52. In 1913 after being treated to sumptuous meals, to which legendary French chef did Kaiser Wilhelm II say "I am the Emperor of Germany, but you are the Emperor of Chefs"?

    Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)

    He is a legendary figure among chefs and gourmands, and was one of the most important leaders in the development of modern French cuisine. The moniker 'king' is often used to describe him.

  53. The name of what dessert made with sweetened milk and rennet (the digestive enzyme which curdles milk) can also mean a pleasure trip usually taken on others expense?

    Junket

  54. According to the book The History of Science and Technology, the origin of what snack can be traced to the shape of folded arms of children in prayer?

    Pretzels

    Within the Catholic church, pretzels were regarded as having religious significance for both ingredients and shape. Pretzels made with a simple recipe using only flour and water could be eaten during Lent, when Christians were forbidden to eat eggs, lard, or dairy products such as milk and butter. As time passed, pretzels became associated with both Lent and Easter.

  55. The French Paradox is the observation that the French suffer a relatively low incidence of heart disease, despite having a diet rich in saturated fats. After a description of it aired on 60 Minutes in 1991, there was a significant spurt in the sale of what item?

    Red wine

    The program speculated that red wine decreases the incidence of cardiac diseases. Further dietary studies have a cast a doubt on the claim.

  56. In 1981, in a move that met with considerable controversy, the Agriculture Department in the US proposed classifying pickle relish and what other condiment as vegetables in order to save money on school lunch programs?

    Ketchup

    It would have allowed public schools to cut out a serving of cooked or fresh vegetable from hot lunch program child-nutrition requirements. It was criticized by nutritionists and Democratic politicians who staged photo ops where they dined on nutrition-poor meals that conformed to the new lax standards and the policy was subsequently shelved.

  57. What Chinese dipping sauce that is common in Cantonese cuisine derives its name from a word meaning 'seafood' (though it contains none)?

    Hoisin

  58. With connection to Jewish food, what are Maror and chazeret, Charoset, Karpas, Zeroah and Beitzah?

    Symbolic foods eaten or displayed on the Passover Seder plate

    Each of the six items arranged on the plate has special significance to the retelling of the story of the exodus from Egypt, which is the focus of this ritual meal. The seventh symbolic item used during the meal - a stack of three matzos - is placed on its own plate on the Seder table.

  59. What is the term for the food preparation in which an ingredient, usually in a shallow dish, is topped with a browned crust?

    Gratin

    It can be done using breadcrumbs, grated cheese, egg and/or butter. The etymology of gratin is from the French language in which the word gratter meaning to 'to scrape.'

  60. What vegetable that is also called a Swedish turnip is avoided by many older Germans as they consider it 'famine food'?

    Rutabaga

    This taboo existed from the 1916-17 famine Steckrübenwinter (Rutabaga winter) when Germany, already drained by World War I's endless Western Front, had one of the worst winters in memory, where often the only food available was Swedish turnips. This led a distaste to the vegetable which still continues today with the older generations having had experiences from World War II or having had a childhood with parents talking about the aforementioned famine.

  61. Because they spoil at high temperatures, what were once assumed to be safe for eating only in the months with the letter 'r' in their English/French names?

    Oysters

    The belief that oysters were unsafe to eat in May through August arose when refrigeration was less prevalent than it is today.

  62. The 'Lumper' which was affected by a blight in the mid-19th century causing great hardship in a particular country was a variety of what staple?

    Potato (the Irish Famine)

    The Lumper potato, widely cultivated in western and southern Ireland before and during the great famine, was bland, wet, and poorly resistant to the potato blight, but yielded large crops and usually provided adequate calories for peasants and laborers. Heavy dependence on this potato led to disaster when the potato blight turned a newly harvested potato into a putrid mush in minutes.

  63. What is the better known 'national' name of the confection called lokum that is a gel of starch and sugar with nuts usually mixed in?

    Turkish delight

  64. The Gomantong and Niah caves in Borneo were the main source of what famous culinary ingredient till the 90s until escalating demand supplanted them with custom-made structures to attract birds?

    Saliva nests, used for bird's nest soup

    A few species of swift, the cave swifts, are renowned for building the saliva nests used to produce the unique texture of this soup. The edible bird's nests are among the most expensive animal products consumed by humans.

  65. According to The Wall Street Journal, in March 2011 which drink overtook Pepsi to become the No. 2 carbonated soft drink in the US, perhaps reflecting weight consciousness?

    Diet Coke

  66. Which hazelnut liqueur comes in a bottle with a knotted white cord around its waist that is meant to mimic the religious garments of a friar?

    Frangelico

    The liqueur's likely namesake was the famous painter Fra Angelico (d.1455) who was a Dominican.

  67. What term used by California wineries denotes red and white Bordeaux-style wines and is intended to not infringe on the 'heritage' of Bordeaux's legally protected designation of origin?

    Meritage

  68. Tsampa, which is made from roasted barley with butter mixed in is a staple in what part of the world?

    Tibet

    Tsampa is sometimes called the national food of Tibet. Besides constituting a substantial, arguably predominant part of the Tibetan diet, its prominence also derives from the tradition of throwing pinches of tsampa in the air during many Buddhist rituals.

  69. The name of which Italian-American dish that consists of pasta and fresh vegetables takes its name from the Italian for 'spring', just like a Botticelli painting?

    Pasta primavera

    A meat such as chicken, sausage or shrimp is sometimes added, but the focus of primavera is the vegetables themselves. The dish may contain almost any kind of vegetable, but cooks tend to stick to firm, crisp vegetables, such as broccoli, carrots, peas, onions and green bell peppers, with tomatoes.

  70. Which sauce made from ham drippings and coffee and seen in the cuisine of the Southern United States gets its name from its appearance like that of a certain body organ?

    Red-eye gravy

    The gravy is made from the drippings of pan-fried country ham, bacon, or other pork, sometimes mixed with black coffee. The same drippings, when mixed with flour, make the flavoring for a white gravy. Red-eye gravy is often served over ham, cornbread, grits, or biscuits.

  71. Frequently seen in restaurants that serve wine, what is a 'cruvinet'?

    Dispensing system that prevents oxidation of wine in opened bottles

    The system usually works by putting nitrogen into the opened bottle and is used in restaurants that offer wines by the glass.

  72. 'Umami' is a Japanese word that translates as 'good flavor' and is used as a fifth category of what by those who think that the existing four basic categories are insufficient?

    Taste

    The four categories are bitter, salty, sour and sweet. Umami is described as savory, brothy, and meaty.

  73. Which potent potable acquired the nickname 'Nelson's Blood' as Lord Nelson's body was purportedly placed in it for preservation after the Battle of Trafalgar (1805)?

    Rum

    The story goes that Nelson's body was preserved in a cask of rum to allow transport back to England. Upon arrival, the body was removed and it was discovered that the sailors had drilled a hole in the bottom of the cask and drunk all the rum, in the process drinking Nelson's blood. Thus, this tale serves as a basis for the term Nelson's Blood being used to describe rum. It also serves as the basis for the term 'Tapping the Admiral' being used to describe drinking the daily rum ration. The details of the story are disputed, as many historians claim the cask contained French brandy whilst others claim instead the term originated from a toast to Admiral Nelson.

  74. What is the distinguishing factor of the drink pousse-café which is more a delight for the eye than the palate?

    It is a layered drink that looks colorful

    Slightly different densities of various liqueurs are used to create an array of colored layers, typically three to seven.
    (Acknowledgement)

  75. Which crop that was of great nutritional importance in pre-Columbian Andean civilizations, and which has now entered the mainstream world market, was called as the 'mother of all grains' by the Incas?

    Quinoa

    During the European conquest of South America, it was scorned by the Spanish colonists as 'food for Indians', and even actively suppressed, due to its status within indigenous non-Christian ceremonies.

  76. Which British English term for a light meal originated in monasteries where the reading from The Lives of the Fathers (Collationes Patrum) was followed by a light meal?

    Collation

  77. In cooking terminology, what is the process of stewing meat, mainly game, for a long time in a tightly covered container, such as a casserole? A traditional dish that involves this process is made with hare and is known as civet de lièvre in France.

    Jugging

    Sometimes the cooking liquid includes some of the animal's blood.

  78. Named for the cousin of a baseball legend, what type of salad invented in the 1930s and made from chopped ingredients has now become generic for every sort of chopped salad?

    Cobb salad

  79. What species of coffee plant constitutes nearly 75% of world's coffee-bean production?

    Arabica

    Robusta makes up most of the rest. Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, being grown in southwest Arabia for well over 1,000 years.

  80. Which liquor distilled from grapes is popularly drunk in South America and is matter of legal disputes between Chile and Peru?

    Pisco

  81. Which Scottish meat dish is traditionally served with 'neeps and tatties' (yellow turnip or rutabaga and potatoes) and a 'dram' (a glass of Scotch whisky)?

    Haggis

    It is a kind of sausage.

  82. If you replace rye whiskey with scotch whiskey in the cocktail 'Manhattan', what Scottish hero, I mean, drink do you get?

    Rob Roy

  83. Commonly associated with the beverage industry, what is the process applied to cereal grains in which they are made to germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further by drying/heating with hot air?

    Malting

  84. What is the 'religious' name for the hot appetizer made of oysters wrapped with bacon?

    Angels on horseback

    In the United Kingdom they can also be a savoury, the final course of a traditional British formal meal.

  85. Though the distinction between spirits and liqueurs is widely ignored in common usage, what is the actual difference between them?

    Liqueurs have added sugars; spirits do not

    Popular spirits include brandy, fruit brandy (also known as eau-de-vie / Schnapps), gin, rum, tequila, vodka, and whisky while Grand Marnier, Frangelico, and American schnapps are liqueurs.

  86. Which restaurant guide that started in 1979 has ratings on a 30-point scale made up of ratings for defined areas including food, decor, service, and cost?

    Zagat Survey

  87. The name of which spice also known as Jamaica pepper was coined by people who thought that it combined the flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves?

    Allspice

  88. Which substance that is obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish is a form of collagen that is used for the clarification of wine and beer?

    Isinglass

    Isinglass finings are widely used as a processing aid in the British brewing industry to accelerate the fining, or clarification, of beer. They are used particularly in the production of cask-conditioned beers, known as real ale, although there are a few cask ales available which are not fined using isinglass. Although very little isinglass remains in the beer when it is drunk, many vegetarians consider beers which are processed with these finings (such as Guinness) to be unsuitable for vegetarian diets.

  89. Which wine from Portugal is noted for its unique creation process that involves heating it up to 60°C and deliberately exposing it to some levels of oxidation?

    Madeira

    Due to this unique process, Madeira is a very robust wine that can be quite long lived even after being opened.

  90. The name of what species of herring is from the comparison with a fat female tavern-keeper because the front of its body is larger than that of other fish found in the same waters?

    Alewife

    Alewives are perhaps best known for their invasion of the Great Lakes by using the Welland Canal to bypass Niagara Falls.

  91. Although overshadowed by the dominance of its rival Hennessy, what cognac is a status symbol within the hip-hop community because of a song by Busta Rhymes and P. Diddy?

    Courvoisier ("Pass the Courvoisier")

    It is frequently cited as the favorite drink of Napoleon.

  92. Which English tradition originated at Woburn Abbey when Duchess Anna Maria decided it was too long to wait without refreshments between lunch and dinner?

    Afternoon tea

  93. The name of which culinary seed is associated with a popular phrase in an Arabian Nights tale and refers to it's ability to pop at the slightest touch when ripe?

    Sesame seed

    The phrase is of course "open sesame" from Ali-Baba.

  94. What did Jay Sindler inadvertently invent in 1933 while looking for a way to get an olive out of his martini without using his fingers?

    Swizzle stick

    The swizzle portion of the swizzle stick name originated from the Caribbean cocktail, Rum Swizzle.

  95. When the chef George Crum was working in Saratoga Springs, USA, a customer complained that the french fries were too thick. What did Crum do?

    Came up with potato chips

    The angered cook was frustrated by this remark, so he decided to give the maximal opposite of what the client was complaining about: he sliced potatoes paper-thin, over fried them to a crisp and seasoned them with an excess of salt. When the crisps were prepared, he gave them to the customer, who loved them. The chips became popular, and became known as Saratoga Chips. Crum was able to open his own restaurant with the profits he made selling his new chips. They remained a local delicacy until the Prohibition era, when an enterprising salesman named Herman Lay popularized the product throughout the Southeast United States.

  96. What is the name of the Indonesian feast that is a Dutch translation of 'rice table' and is an elaborate meal consisting of many side dishes?

    Rijsttafel

    It consists of many (forty is not an unusual number) side dishes served in small portions, accompanied by rice prepared in several different ways. Popular side dishes include egg rolls, sambals, satay, fish, fruit, vegetables, pickles, and nuts. In most areas where it is served, such as Indonesia, the Netherlands, and other areas of heavy Dutch influence (such as parts of the West Indies), it is known under its Dutch name.

  97. Which movement founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy in 1986 claims to preserve the cultural cuisine and the associated food plants and seeds, domestic animals, and farming within an ecoregion?

    Slow Food movement

    Slow Food began in Italy with the foundation of its forerunner organization, Arcigola, in 1986 to resist the opening of a McDonald's near the Spanish Steps in Rome. The Slow Food organization spawned by the movement has expanded to include over 100,000 members with chapters in over 132 countries.

  98. The name of which Japanese company that translates as 'Essence of Taste' is used as a trademark for the company's signature product of monosodium glutamate (MSG)?

    Ajinomoto

  99. What is the cooking term for a liquid that reaches a point in temperature when it is boiling vigorously which cannot be stopped by stirring?

    Rolling boil

  100. Which drink composed of three parts champagne or other sparkling wine and two parts chilled orange juice is traditionally served to guests at weddings?

    Mimosa

    Outside the USA the mixture of orange juice and champagne is referred to as a Buck's Fizz, while the term mimosa is used in the United States.

  101. Most often used to cook fish and also poultry, what does the En Papillote method of cooking indicate?

    Method in which food is put into a folded parcel and baked.

    The parcel is typically made from folded parchment paper, but other material such as a paper bag or aluminium foil may be used. The parcel holds in moisture to steam the food. The moisture may be from the food itself or from an added moisture source like water, wine, or stock.

  102. What is a cake made primarily with eggs, sugar, and ground nuts instead of flour called?

    Torte

    Variations may include bread crumbs as well as some flour. The most well-known of the typical tortes include the Austrian Sacher torte and Linzertorte and the many-layered Hungarian Dobos torte.

  103. Calvados is brandy made from which fruit?

    Apples

    It is made by distilling apple cider and aging in oak casks for 2 to 5 years or more. Calvados is made in Calvados, Normandy, France, and dates back at least to the 16th century. It is an excellent brandy to use in cooking, especially in chicken dishes and desserts.

  104. In the world of spirits, what is referred to as 'angel's share'?

    Portion of the distilled spirit lost to evaporation during aging

  105. The Moosewood Cookbook, a 1978 recipe book written by Mollie Katzen is popular for featuring what types of recipes?

    Vegetarian

    It was listed by the New York Times as one of the top ten bestselling cookbooks of all time, and is likely the most popular vegetarian cookbook in the world. Katzen has written two books that might be considered sequels; the first, called The Enchanted Broccoli Forest, expands on topics such as baking that the Moosewood book does not cover in depth, and is done in the same hand-lettered style as the original. The second, The Vegetable Dishes I Can't Live Without, came out in 2007 and returned to Katzen's original hand-written style after years of more conventionally designed books such as Still Life with Menu and Pretend Soup.

  106. Named for a French diplomat, what are confections made from nuts and sugar syrup called?

    Pralines

    Early pralines were whole almonds individually coated in caramelized sugar, as opposed to dark nougat, where a sheet of caramelized sugar covers many nuts. French settlers brought this recipe to Louisiana, where both sugar cane and pecan trees were plentiful. During the 19th century, New Orleans chefs substituted pecans for almonds, added cream to thicken the confection, and thus created what became known throughout the American South as the praline.

  107. What food product made from white-fleshed fish pulverized to a paste is intended to mimic the meat of lobster/crab and appears in Western markets as artificial crab legs?

    Surimi

  108. In the food industry, 'affinage' is the craft of maturing and aging what item?

    Cheese

  109. What is the name given to a baked confection made with coconut and egg white or with a coarse almond paste usually made into cookies?

    Macaroon

    They are often confused (due to the very similar spelling) with the French Macarons which are entirely different in appearance.

  110. The term 'holy trinity of cuisine' refers specifically to celery, bell peppers, and onions that form the heart of which cuisine?

    Cajun/Creole cuisines of Louisiana

  111. Which herb now commonly associated with pizza derives its name from the Greek for 'joy of the mountain'?

    Oregano

    Oregano is an indispensable ingredient for Greek cuisine. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually used separately or added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WWII soldiers brought back with them a taste for the "pizza herb."

  112. From the Italian for 'hunter', which American-Italian term refers to food prepared 'hunter-style' with mushrooms, onions and tomatoes?

    Cacciatore

    Chicken cacciatore is the most popular dish prepared in this style.

  113. From the Arabic root meaning 'to grind', what is the name given to a paste of ground sesame seeds?

    Tahini

    Tahini-based sauces are common in Arab and Israeli restaurants as a side dish or as a garnish, usually including lemon juice, salt and garlic, and thinned with water. Tahini sauce is a popular condiment for meat and vegetables in Middle Eastern cuisine.

  114. Which Italian brandy made by distilling pomace and grape residue was originally made to prevent waste by using leftovers at the end of the wine season?

    Grappa

    In Italy, grappa is primarily served as a "digestivo" or after-dinner drink. Its main purpose was to aid in the digestion of heavy meals. Grappa may also be added to espresso coffee to create a caffè corretto meaning corrected coffee.

  115. The Englishman Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) is renowned for cataloging what items that subtly enhance our culinary experience?

    Herbs

    His published books, The English Physitian (1652) and The Complete Herbal (1653), contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge.

  116. In a restaurant, what is the difference between being served 'Service à la française' and 'Service à la russe'?

    Getting all the dishes of a meal at the same moment (vs) separately

  117. Which Icelandic dish made of fermented shark was described by Anthony Bourdain as "the single worst, most disgusting and terrible tasting thing" on the Travel Channel show No Reservations?

    Hákarl

    It is prepared by gutting and beheading a Greenland or Basking shark and placing it in a shallow hole dug in gravelly-sand, with the now-cleaned cavity resting on a slight hill. The shark ferments for 6-12 weeks depending on the season in this fashion. Following this curing period, the shark is then cut into strips and hung to dry for several months. Those new to it will usually gag involuntarily on the first attempt to eat it due to the high ammonia content. It is often eaten with a shot of the local spirit, brennivin.

  118. While in Labrador, Canada, he was taught by the Inuit how to ice fish under very thick ice. In -40°C weather, he discovered that the fish he caught froze almost instantly, and upon thawing, it tasted very fresh. This discovery prompted him to do something.

    Who?

    Clarence Birdseye (1886-1956)

    He is considered the founder of the modern frozen food industry.

  119. Which Asian fruit is known for its odour once prompting the English novelist Anthony Burgess to say that dining on it is like eating vanilla custard in a latrine?

    Durian

    It is a large, green, thorny fruit cultivated in south east Asia, particularly in the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia. It is considered a great delicay by most, and is also known the 'king of fruits.' To the foreigner, the most distinctive feature is apparently its seriously pungent smell, which to western tastes can be repellent.
    (Acknowledgement)

  120. Mariculture is concerned with the production of food in which particular environment?

    Seawater

    It is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.

  121. The name of which distinctly Southern American food item is often attributed to hunters or fishermen who would quickly fry corn meal and feed it to their dogs to keep them quiet?

    Hushpuppies

    Two other legends surrounding the hush puppy date back to Civil War days. Southern soldiers would sit beside a campfire, preparing their meals. When Union soldiers came near, they would toss their barking dogs some of the fried cakes with the command "Hush, puppies." A common explanation for the name in Charleston, SC is that slaves returning into the homes of their masters carrying food recently prepared in the outdoor kitchens would throw the batter balls to the barking dogs, telling the "puppies" to "hush."
    (Acknowledgement)

  122. What is the name of the dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatine made from a meat stock or consommé?

    Aspic

    Almost any type of food can be set into aspics. Most common are meat pieces, fruits, or vegetables. Aspics are usually served on cold plates so that the gel will not melt before being eaten. By the Middle Ages at the latest, cooks had discovered that a thickened meat broth could be made into a jelly and that the jelly could seal cooked meat from the air and therefore keep it from spoiling.

  123. If French fries became 'freedom fries' in recent times, what food item was called 'liberty cabbage' in the US due to anti-German sentiment during WWI?

    Sauerkraut

    Similar euphemisms, some of which did not spring up until World War II, include "liberty measles" for "German measles," "Eisenhower jacket" for "Hindenburg jacket," "Eisenhower herring" for "Bismarck herring," "liberty steak" for "hamburger."

  124. Which fermented alcoholic beverage is made of honey, water, and yeast and is colloquially known as 'honey wine'?

    Mead

  125. Which Korean fermented side dish made of select vegetables with varied seasonings enjoys an iconic status in that country's cuisine?

    Kimchi

    The Kimchi Field Museum in Seoul has documented 187 historic and current varieties of kimchi. Although the most common seasonings include brine, garlic, scallions and chili pepper grind, countless varieties of seasoning and ingredients can be replaced or added depending on the type of kimchi being made. Kimchi has a reputation of being a healthy food. The US magazine Health named kimchi in its list of top five "World's Healthiest Foods" for being rich in vitamins, aiding digestion, and even possibly retarding cancer growth.

  126. Located in central Tokyo and serving as a major attraction for foreign visitors, what is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world?

    Tsukiji fish market

  127. Which dish consisting of pureed or finely chopped olives, capers and olive oil is a popular food in the south of France where it is generally eaten as an hors d’œuvre?

    Tapenade

    Its present form was invented less than 100 years ago by the chef in the Maison Dorée in Marseilles, although olive-based pastes have existed in the region for a long time. Tapenade's base ingredient is olive. The olives (most commonly black olive) and capers are finely chopped, crushed, or blended. Olive oil is then added until the mixture becomes a paste. Tapenade is often flavored differently in varying regions with other ingredients such as garlic, herbs, fish, lemon juice, or brandy.

  128. Literally meaning 'tea restaurant' and commonly found in Hong Kong, what is the casual cafe known for its eclectic and affordable menus called?

    Cha chaan teng

    An important part of Hong Kong culture, cha chaan teng is featured in many Hong Kong movies and TV dramas.

  129. The name of which wine, called as 'Hermitage' in Australia till the 1980s comes from a city in Iran where the process of wine making originated 7000 years ago?

    Shiraz

    Shiraz is widely used to make a dry red table wine. It is often vinified on its own, but is also frequently blended with other grape varieties, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Mourvèdre and Viognier. It is grown in many wine producing regions around the world, with concentrations in Australia, The Rhone Valley in France, and the US. It is often used as a blending grape in Spain and Italy as well.

  130. What type of ice cream is chocolate, vanilla and strawberry flavors side-by-side in the same container typically with no packaging in between?

    Neapolitan

    Neapolitan ice cream was named in the late 19th century as a reflection of its presumed origins in the cuisine of the Italian city of Naples, and the many Neapolitan immigrants who brought their expertise in frozen desserts with them to the United States.

  131. Which traditional cake from France is famous for its association with memory in the Marcel Proust novel Remembrance of Things Past in which the narrator experiences an awakening upon tasting it?

    Madeleine cake

    Madeleines are very small cakes with a distinctive shell-like shape acquired from being baked in pans with shell-shaped depressions. Their flavour is similar to, but somewhat lighter than, pound cake, with a pronounced butter-and-lemon taste.

  132. In the world of beverages, what is 'The Swiss Water Process' concerned with?

    Decaffeination

    It was developed by the Swiss Water Decaffeinated Coffee Company. To decaffeinate the coffee bean by the Swiss Water method, a batch of green (unroasted) beans is soaked in hot water, releasing caffeine. This process is done until all the caffeine and coffee solids are released into the water. These beans are then discarded. Next, the water passes through a carbon filter which traps the caffeine molecules but allows the water and the coffee solids to pass through. The caffeine-free water which comes through, known as "flavor-charged" water by the company, is then put in a similar filtration device, and new coffee beans are added. However, since the flavor-charged water cannot remove any of the coffee solids from the new beans, only the caffeine is released. The process repeats, filtering out all the caffeine until the beans are 99.9% caffeine free. These beans are removed and dried, and thus retain most if not all of their flavor and smell.

  133. In England, it was believed that which birds grew from organisms exposed to salt water and this belief enabled Catholics to classify them as 'fish' and hence qualified them to be eaten during Lent?

    Barnacle geese

    This belief stemmed from the observation that these geese were never seen in summer, when they were supposedly developing underwater (they were actually breeding in remote Arctic regions). The barnacles and the geese shared similar black and white colours, plus a certain type of barnacle looked - with a bit of imagination - like a tiny black and white goose. The geese and the barnacles appeared in different seasons. Though the issue was controversial, it was an important part of medieval cuisine.

  134. The distinctive flavor and aroma of what popular tea blend are derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of bergamot oranges?

    Earl Grey

    It is named after the 2nd Earl Grey, British Prime Minister in the 1830s, who reputedly received a gift, probably a diplomatic perquisite, of tea flavoured with bergamot oil. The legend usually involves a grateful Chinese mandarin whose son was rescued from drowning by one of Lord Grey's men, although this blend of tea was first made from fermented black Indian and Ceylon teas. As green tea is much more popular in China than black tea, it seems somewhat unlikely that they would have had a recipe for what we now call Earl Grey to bestow on visitors, though over the years many other varieties of tea have been used.

  135. Just like Kosher for Jews and Halal for Muslims, 'Ital' is for which religion/movement?

    Rastafarian

    The word derives from the English word vital, with the initial syllable replaced by i. This is done to many words in the Rastafari vocabulary to signify the unity of the speaker with all of nature.

  136. Because the climate of Ireland hinders the growth of hard wheat (that creates a flour that rises with the assistance of yeast), bicarbonate of soda replaced yeast as the leavening agent. This led to the creation of what type of bread?

    Soda bread

    There are several theories as to the significance of the cross in soda bread. Some believe that the cross was placed in the bread to ward off evil. It is more likely that the cross is used to help with the cooking of the bread or to serve as a guideline for even slices. Soda bread eventually became a staple of the Irish diet. It was, and still is, used as an accompaniment to a meal.

  137. What is the popular Middle-Eastern appetizer made from eggplants whose Russian equivalent is called 'eggplant caviar'?

    Baba ghanoush

    It is made of aubergine, mashed, and mixed with various seasonings. Frequently the eggplant is baked or broiled over an open flame before peeling, so that the pulp is soft and has a smoky taste.

  138. Shennong, the legendary emperor of China who is believed to have lived about 5000 years ago is considered as the father of Chinese agriculture as well as the discoverer of which potable?

    Tea

    The most well-known work attributed to Shennong is the The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic first compiled some time during the end of the Western Han Dynasty, several thousand years after Shennong supposedly existed - which lists the various medical herbs such as reishi which were discovered by Shennong and given grade and rarity ratings. Tea is said to be his discovery. Shennong is also venerated as the Father of Chinese medicine and is believed to have introduced the technique of acupuncture.

  139. Which tropical root that is used to make tapioca should not be consumed raw as it contains cyanide and is thus poisonous?

    Cassava

    For some varieties of cassava, cooking is sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. Larger varieties need additional processing.

  140. Which cheese has such a pungent odour that a 2006 study showed that the malaria mosquito is attracted equally to the smell of it and to the smell of human feet?

    Limburger cheese

    The bacteria used to ferment Limburger cheese and other rind-washed cheeses is the same bacteria found on human skin partially responsible for human body odor.

  141. What is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained?

    Whey (or) milk plasma

    It is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. Whey is used to produce ricotta and brown cheeses and many other products for human consumption.

  142. In South American/Carribbean cooking, what is the 6-letter word for a a wooden framework on which meat is roasted or smoked over a fire? The synonym of a word for pirate can be traced to it.

    Buccan

    The term "buccaneer" is said to be derived from buccan. In the Caribbean, these seafarers would smoke fish, wild pigs and turtles to provision their ships.

  143. Which artificial fat substance created by Procter & Gamble in 1968 was first used in potato chips by Frito Lay?

    Olestra

    Sales were over $400 million in the first year but by 2000 sales slowed to $200 million, largely caused by the unappealing health warning label, which was mandated by the FDA, as: "This Product Contains Olestra. Olestra may cause abdominal cramping and loose stools. Olestra inhibits the absorption of some vitamins and other nutrients. Vitamins A, D, E, and K have been added."

  144. Which rice dish from Valencia, Spain where it is traditionally eaten on Sundays is the word for 'frying pan' in Catalan/Valencian?

    Paella

    Paella is usually garnished with vegetables and meat or seafood. The three main ingredients are rice, saffron, and olive oil. There is an old story of how the Moorish kings' servants created rice dishes by mixing the leftovers from royal banquets in large pots to take home. It is said by some that that word paella originates from the Arabic word baqiyah, meaning leftovers.

  145. Which food item of Chinese origin is made by coagulating soy milk, and then by pressing the resulting curds into blocks?

    Tofu or bean curd

    The making of tofu from soy milk is similar to the technique of making cheese from milk. Wheat gluten, or seitan, in its steamed and fried forms, is often mistakenly called "tofu" in Asian or vegetarian dishes.

  146. The Turkish city Gaziantep is widely regarded as the native city of what popular layered dessert?

    Baklava

    It is a pastry made of layers of phyllo dough filled with chopped nuts, usually walnuts or pistachios, and sweetened with sugar or honey syrup. Baklava is a popular dessert throughout the former Ottoman world. After the meal, an assortment of small pastries is typically brought to the table on a brass tray, accompanied by tiny cups of Turkish coffee.

  147. In 1970, which fast-food chain became the first to offer a drive-through window?

    Wendy's

    Implemented initially at Wendy's second location, the "Pick-Up Window" used a speaker box to allow a customer to drive up, place an order, then drive to the window to complete the order.

  148. Unlike conventional ales and lagers which are fermented by carefully cultivated strains of brewer's yeasts, what type of beer brewed in Belgium is produced by spontaneous fermentation?

    Lambic beer

    The origins of Lambic beer lie in the working classes of the region some 500 years ago who appreciated a weak, quenching drink that could be produced cheaply and easily on the farm.

  149. Though the word 'mutton' is sometimes used to describe goat's meat (especially in the Indian sub-continent), what is the actual term for it?

    Chevon

  150. Which traditional Mexican dish, a spicy soup made with tripe is often thought of as a cure for a hangover?

    Menudo

    The popularity of menudo in Mexico is such that Mexico is a major export market for stomach tripe from US and Canadian beef producers. Large frozen blocks of imported menudo meat can frequently be seen in Mexican meat markets. Menudo is eaten for breakfast and is known as the "Breakfast of Champions" in New Mexico and Texas.

  151. Which Chinese dish named after a late Qing Dynasty official consists of diced marinated chicken stir-fried with roasted peanuts?

    Kung Pao chicken

    Kung Pao chicken is a very popular staple of North American Sichuan-style Chinese restaurants, and many recommend using it as a measure of the skills of a chef. Kung Pao Chicken has found popularity among hackers, in whose cultural jargon it is known as 'laser chicken.' This term probably originates with regard to the spicy hot taste and red sauce, likened to a laser beam.

  152. Because it is lethally poisonous if not done right, which Japanese dish prepared from the meat of pufferfish is the only delicacy officially forbidden to the Emperor of Japan, for his own safety?

    Fugu

    Pufferfish contains lethal amounts of the poison tetrodotoxin in the internal organs, especially the liver and gonads, and also the skin. Therefore, only specially licensed chefs are allowed to prepare and sell fugu to the public, and the consumption of the liver and ovaries is forbidden. But because small amounts of the poison give a special desired sensation on the tongue, these parts are considered the most delicious by some gourmets. Every year, a number of people die because they underestimate the amount of poison in the consumed fish parts.

  153. One night during a trip, Lucrezia Borgia checked into an inn in the small town. The host was captivated by her beauty and couldn't resist the urge to peek into her room through the keyhole. The bedroom was only lit by a few candles, and so he could merely see her navel. This pure and innocent vision was enough to send him into an ecstasy that inspired him to create something that night.

    The origin of what type of pasta dish is surrounded by this legend?

    Tortellini

    Another separate but similar legend, originating in medieval Italy, tells how Venus and Jupiter (also known as Aphrodite and Zeus) arrived at a tavern on the outskirts of Bologna one night, weary from their involvement in a battle between Modena and Bologna. After much food and drink, they shared a room. The innkeeper, captivated by the two, followed them and peeked through the keyhole. All he could see was Venus's navel. Spellbound, he rushed to the kitchen and created tortellini in its image.

  154. What restaurant style of stir frying meats and vegetables over a large iron griddle actually originated in Taiwan, despite its name?

    Mongolian barbecue

    Although the stir-frying of meats on a large, open surface is supposed to evoke Mongolian cuisine, the preparation actually derives from Japanese-style teppanyaki which was popular in Taiwan in the middle to late 20th century.

  155. The name of which extremely sweet cordial comes from the Japanese for green?

    Midori

    It is now manufactured in Mexico, though it was originally made in Japan until 1987.

  156. If you have a sensitive stomach, then you should be well-versed with the Scoville scale. What does it measure?

    Spicy heat of a chili pepper

    The number of Scoville heat units (SHU) indicates the amount of capsaicin present. Many hot sauces use their Scoville rating in advertising as a selling point. The scale is named after its creator, American chemist Wilbur Scoville. Pure capsaicin is rated highest at 15-16 million units while the bell pepper is at 0.

  157. What is the name given to the citrus-marinated seafood that originated in Latin American countries?

    Ceviche

    It is not cooked by heat but rather by the acid in the citrus juice.

  158. In the 18th century, the British East India Company introduced tonic water into the diet of soldiers in India to prevent malaria as it contains quinine. Because the tonic water was extremely bitter, what else was added to it to make it more palatable?

    Gin

    This is the origin of the cocktail 'gin and tonic.'

  159. After rice, wheat and maize (corn), what is the fourth largest food crop in the world?

    Potato

    The potato was first domesticated in southern Peru and spread from South America to Spain and from there to the rest of the world after European colonization in the late 1400s and early 1500s. It is also strongly associated with Idaho (USA), Prince Edward Island (Canada), Ireland and Russia because of its large role in the agricultural economy and/or history of these regions.

  160. Which civilization has the earliest documented usage of chocolate as food or drink?

    Mayan

    The chocolate residue found in an ancient Maya pot suggests that Mayans were drinking chocolate 2,600 years ago, which is the earliest record of cacao use.

  161. Which fortified wine flavored with aromatic herbs and spices is used for many cocktails including the Martini and the Manhattan?

    Vermouth

    Vermouth is used in many cocktails, where it serves as a moderating agent to reduce the percentage of alcohol by volume in the drink and provide a herbal flavor.

  162. If you are in Kashmir and are about to participate in a Wazwan, what are you about to enjoy?

    Feast

    The traditional Wazwan is considered the height of Kashmiri cuisine and considerable time and effort are invested into the preparation of the banquet. Rogan Josh, an aromatic lamb dish, is a popular item in a Wazwan.

  163. In a winery, 'chaptalization' is the addition of what substance to the unfermented grape mush?

    Sugar, to increase the alcohol content after fermentation

    The technique was developed by the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal, for whom it was named. This process does not make the wine sweeter but only artificially inflates the alcohol content. The process is considered controversial and has caused discontent in the French wine industry due to the perceived advantage that chaptalization gives producers in poor climate areas.

  164. What is the main difference between jelly and jam?

    For jelly, the fruit pulp is filtered out during preparation

    Jam refers to a product made with whole fruit, cut into pieces or crushed. The fruit is heated with water and sugar to activate the pectin in the fruit and the mixture is then put into containers. Although these terms exist in North America, the UK and Australia, popularly most jams are generically referred to as "jelly" in North America, as whole fruit jams and fruit butters are less popular commercially than jelly. In the UK and Australia both terms are used in their "correct" sense, although the term jam is more popularly used in Australia as a generic term. To further confuse the issue, the term jelly is also used in the UK and Australia to refer to a gelatin dessert, but in North America the commercial product Jell-o is used as a generic name for the same.

  165. Before his days as a saloon proprietor, he was known as a pickpocket and thief who often preyed on drunken bar patrons. He was later the bartender of a Chicago establishment that operated from 1896 to 1903 but kept up with his old ways.

    Who?

    Mickey Finn

    Serving a drugged drink is hence called "slipping a Mickey."

  166. What is the style of cooking native to Jamaica in which meats are dry-rubbed with a fiery spice mixture?

    Jerk

    Jerk seasoning principally relies upon two items: allspice (Jamaican Pimento) and Scotch Bonnet peppers (among the hottest peppers on the Scoville scale). Other ingredients include Cloves, cinnamon, scallions, Todd (elm cultivar), nutmeg, thyme, garlic, which is mixed together to form a marinade which is rubbed onto pork, chicken, or fish.

  167. If you are drinking water from the Zamzam Well, where are you?

    Mecca

    Zamzam is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. It is 30 metres deep. Muslims believe that the Zamzam well was revealed to Hagar, wife of Abraham and mother of Ishmael.

  168. What condiment that comes in pods is referred to as 'The Queen of Spices' in India?

    Cardamom

    It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Scandinavia. It is native to the jungles of south India and Sri Lanka, and belongs to the family of ginger. Cleopatra apparently found the scent of cardamom so enticing that she would burn the crushed pods, instead of incense, before the arrival of Marc Antony.

  169. What drink was called as 'scandal broth' by Sir Walter Scott in his book Peveril of the Peak because it was thought to stimulate gossip?

    Tea

  170. Must be the magic of pilsner. As of 2006, which country leads the world in per capita beer consumption?

    Czech Republic

    156 liters per year! Followed by Ireland at 131 and Germany at 115.