The 12 pairs of these nerves connect directly to the brain, rather than via the spinal cord and include the Optic and the Olfactory nerves.
It is situated under the thalamus and regulates body temperature and the controls the autonomic nervous system.
This part, that sounds like it belongs to a plant, regulates vital functions like heartbeat and respiration.
Part of the forebrain that forms a part of the limbic system and plays a part in long term memory and spatial navigation. Humans and other mammals have two of these, one in each side of the brain. The name derives from its curved shape in coronal sections of the brain, which resembles a seahorse.
It is responsible for balance and posture and is the second largest part of the brain.
A term for a set of brain structures including the hippocampus and amygdala that support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior and long term memory and events that involve the 'primitive brain.'
A small endocrine gland that produces melatonin, a hormone that may weakly modulate wake/sleep patterns.
This is the largest part of the brain, which has a heavily folded surface. Has connections to all parts of the body.
Called the master gland, it controls many other glands and sits at the base of the brain.
Named after an English physician, this circle of arteries encircle the base of the brain and supply blood.
Circle of Willis
The outer layer of the cerebrum, part of which is the forebrain. Takes its name from the Latin for "bark."
Present in the center of the brain, it acts as an information relay station and conveys signals to the cerebral cortex.
This is the artery that supplies the head (and hence the brain) and neck with oxygenated blood.
Common Carotid Artery
The brain floats in this 'liquid' within the skull that provides energy for the brain functional and guards against infection.
CSF or Cerebrospinal fluid
Though it requires 20 percent of the body's blood, the brain accounts for only this much percentage of the body's weight.
The lower portion of the brainstem that deals with autonomic functions whose cardiac center is responsible for controlling the heart rate.
The three protective membranes that surround the brain.
Non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system and they outnumber neurons by about 10 to 1.